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Se han identificado factores de riesgo de caídas en estadounidenses mayores

La disminución de la población anciana es un problema de salud pública cada vez mayor, con millones de infecciones que ocurren anualmente entre los ancianos. Las personas con demencia tienen el doble de riesgo de caídas y el triple de riesgo de lesiones graves por caídas. Incluso las lesiones menores asociadas con las caídas pueden llevar a la hospitalización o al ingreso en un asilo de ancianos para personas mayores con demencia. Un estudio reciente del Colegio de Enfermería y Profesiones de la Salud de la Universidad de Drexel reveló diferentes factores de riesgo de caídas entre los adultos mayores que viven en entornos comunitarios.

Centrarse en factores de riesgo de caídas específicos puede mejorar las estrategias de detección y prevención de caídas.

Las caídas entre los ancianos son un problema de salud pública cada vez más importante Millones de lesiones en los ancianos cada año. Los adultos mayores con demencia tienen el doble de riesgo de caídas y el triple de riesgo de lesiones graves relacionadas con caídas, como fracturas, que las personas sin demencia. Para las personas mayores con demencia, incluso las lesiones menores relacionadas con las caídas pueden llevar a la hospitalización y al ingreso en un asilo de ancianos. Un nuevo estudio realizado por investigadores de la Escuela de Enfermería y Profesiones de la Salud de la Universidad de Drexel arroja luz sobre los muchos y variados factores de riesgo de caídas que enfrentan los adultos mayores en entornos de vida comunitaria.

Publicado hoy (12 de enero) en

“Examining the multiple factors, including environmental ones like a person’s home or neighborhood, is necessary to inform fall-risk screening, caregiver education and support, and prevention strategies for this high-risk population of older adults,” said Okoye.

CDC Statistics on Older Adult Falls

  • In 2019, falls among adults aged 65 and older resulted in over 34,000 deaths, making it the top cause of injury-related deaths for that demographic.
  • Emergency departments recorded 3 million visits for older adult falls in 2019.
  • Older adult falls cost $50 billion in medical costs annually, with 75% paid by Medicare and Medicaid.

Despite awareness of this elevated risk, there are very few studies that have examined fall-risk factors among people with dementia living in a community setting (not nursing homes or other residential facilities). The studies that do exist, overwhelmingly focus on health and function factors. According to the authors, this is the first nationally representative study to compare a comprehensive set of potential risk factors for falls for older Americans living with dementia to those without dementia.

The research team examined data from the 2015 and 2016 National Health and Aging Trends Study (NHATS), a population-based survey of health and disability trends and trajectories of adults 65 and older in the U.S. They were able to obtain potential sociodemographic, health and function predictors of falls, as well as potential social and physical environmental predictors.

Data from NHATS showed that nearly half (45.5%) of older adults with dementia had experienced one or more falls in 2016, compared to less than one-third (30.9%) of older adults without dementia.

Among older adults living with dementia, three characteristics stood out as significantly associated with a greater likelihood of falls: a history of falling the previous year; impaired vision; and living with others (versus alone). For older adults without dementia, financial hardship, a history of falling, fear of falling, poor lower extremity performance, depressive symptoms, and home disrepair were strongly associated with an increased risk of falls.

While prior history of falling and vision impairment are well-known risk factors for falls among older adults in general; the researchers’ findings indicate that these were strong risk factors for falls among people living with dementia. According to the team, this suggests that people living with dementia should be assessed for presence of these characteristics. If they’re present, the individuals should receive further assessment and treatment, including examining their feet and footwear, assessing their environment and ability to carry out daily living activities, among other items.

The finding that older adults living with dementia who lived with a spouse or with non-spousal others had higher odds of experiencing a fall, compared to those who lived alone, highlights that caregiver support and education are understudied components of fall prevention programs for older adults with dementia who live with family caregivers, and deserve greater attention from clinicians, researchers, and policymakers.

“Overall, our findings demonstrate the importance of understanding and addressing fall risk among older adults living with dementia,” said Okoye. “It confirms that fall risk is multidimensional and influenced by environmental context in addition to health and function factors.”

The results of the study indicate the need to further investigate and design fall-prevention interventions, specifically for people living with dementia.

“To decrease the high rates of falls among older adults with dementia, additional tailored fall-risk screening, and fall-prevention interventions should be developed and tested,” said Okoye.

Reference: 12 January 2023, Alzheimer s & Dementia.
DOI: 10.1002/alz.12916

Funding: NIH/National Institutes of Health

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